Wednesday, April 18, 2018

The locomotive that built a bomb

Admittedly, the Northwest Railway Museum has many interesting stories to tell, and most have only rarely been shared.  One recently discovered tale concerns a locomotive that helped build a bomb.  

A light industrial switcher was delivered to a place now known as Hanford, Washington in September 1943.  It was destined for use on a secret project; very few people knew its purpose.  The Manhattan Project was charged with developing one of the most devastating weapons ever created, and a sparsely populated area along the Columbia River was selected as a site to build a Plutonium reactor and concentrator that were essential components in the effort.  The product from this plant was used to create the plutonium bomb, which was nicknamed "Fat Man."

The Plymouth-built locomotive now in the Museum’s Collection was used to build the infrastructure, and continued to serve the facility until October 1954.  Later, the locomotive was sold at auction and purchased by the St Regis Paper Company in Tacoma and used to switch their pulp mill.  Interestingly, the St Regis Story is important too, involving the ubiquitous forest industry and Tacoma’s industrial sector.

Plymouth locomotive #463 recently got some attention from a team of volunteers from a US Coast Guard icebreaker.  The US Coast Guard Cutter HEALY (WAGB - 20) serves above the Arctic Circle from June through November. While the HEALY is in its home port of Seattle, the crew gets involved in a number of community projects. The Museum was chosen earlier this year to benefit from their help, and the Plymouth project was selected. The HEALY team is replacing the cab floor and beginning work on the cab side restoration. Work will continue incrementally, and eventually this object will be placed on exhibit to help tell an important chapter of Northwest history.  Thank you to the Officers and Crew of the USCGC Healy!

Friday, March 16, 2018

Lighting up a coach

Adams and Westlake kerosene
lamp designed for rail passenger
cars. --NRM Collection

Coach 218 was built in 1912, an interesting era in the car hardware and lighting appliance business.  In that year, electric lighting was not yet widespread and most lamps were fueled with oil.  Coach 218 - a product of the Barney and Smith Car Company - was equipped with both electric and kerosene lamps.  When operating on the train to Spokane, electric lighting was powered by a steam dynamo on the baggage car.  On other trains including those to Astoria or Bend, Oregon, kerosene lamps provided light.

Rehabilitating and restoring a wood coach that will operate on a museum railway does present a few challenges, which often have to be met with compromise.  In the gas and oil light era, many incidents resulted in fire that was set by the lighting.  The two-burner lamps weighed more than 60 pounds each and were suspended from the ceiling. The fixtures are tall enough that once installed many patrons over six feet tall would have to duck under the lamps. And practically speaking, the light was very dim by the standards of the 21st Century.  So using kerosene fixtures presented a number of problems, even if converted to electric light.

Coach 218 has a design motif consistent with the Edwardian era of the early 20th Century.  Museum curators selected lamps that would be plausible in this era, but were limited in choices due to budget.  Fixtures produced by Rejuvenation Hardware of Portland, Oregon were selected and installed.  Light emitting diodes that replicate the appearance of clear bulbs were selected and together create a pleasing effect.  We hope you agree!

Coach 218 and its new lighting will be operating at the Northwest
Railway Museum this summer.  

Thursday, February 22, 2018

The Story Teller

"The Story Teller"

The Puget Sound Electric Railway ("PSER") was the region's first experience with the early 20th Century electric interurban phenomenon that swept the land.  In 1902 the PSER inaugurated service between Seattle and Tacoma with electric trains operating as fast as 60 mph.  While service ended in 1928, the legacy lives on with the last remaining example of the railway, interurban car 523.

PSER 523 was donated to the Northwest Railway Museum in September 2017, and a grant from 4Culture funded movement of the car from Petaluma, California to Snoqualmie.  In January 2018 the car was nominated and listed to the King County and City of Snoqualmie Landmarks Registers.  And how appropriate that 523 is now located in Snoqualmie given that 523 was powered in part with electricity from the Snoqualmie Falls hydroelectric power station!

Museum Executive Director
Richard R. Anderson and 
artist J. Craig Thorpe pose
with "The Story Teller" at
the February 22 unveiling.
To raise awareness and help educate, the Museum commissioned noted artist J. Craig Thorpe to produce an original artwork featuring PSER car 523.  "The Story Teller" depicts the northbound car 523 at Auburn in Fall 1915 as it transitions from overhead electric (catenary) to electrified third rail.  It also illustrates the adjacent Milwaukee Road line, and in the distance is Mount Rainier.  The painting is named for its role in interpreting the historical uses of the car, but also for its future at the Northwest Railway Museum in Snoqualmie.

Copies of this beautiful painting are available for $9.95 from the Depot Bookstore at 38265 SE King Street in Snoqualmie.  Proceeds of poster sales will support rehabilitation of car 523.

Friday, February 2, 2018

Back to the Snoqualmie Depot

The Snoqualmie Depot is the most iconic structure in historic downtown Snoqualmie, and the most recognizable object in the Museum's collection.  It was built in 1890 for the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway by the firm of Anderson and Scott in just two months, but in keeping with 1890 technology it did not have electricity, indoor plumbing, or even insulation.  It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a King County and City of Snoqualmie Landmark.

The structure was extensively rehabilitated and restored between 1979 and 1981, and it remains the centrepiece of historic downtown Snoqualmie.  The rear of the depot was particularly difficult to rehabilitate and restore because there was just one photo illustrating that portion of the building.  Now there are two. 

Thanks to a tip from Kent S. from the Northern Pacific Railway Historical Association, the Northwest Railway Museum was able to purchase a "new" rear view of the Snoqualmie Depot.  It shows perspective that would have been from within the footprint of today's Woodman Lodge, itself a King County and City of Snoqualmie Landmark, and built in 1903.  The photographer is not identified, but the photo was taken during the period when the Kinsey Brothers lived in Snoqualmie and were learning the trade. 

The "parlor card" was exposed in the early 1890s and it is reassuring to note that the only "big" difference is incorporation of the accessibility ramp into the raised platform, which was installed in 1980.  The listing on Ebay had just one day remaining and fortunately the Museum was able to secure this important image.  Thank you Kent!

Friday, January 26, 2018

And the newest Snoqualmie Landmark is . . .

The newest and perhaps most unusual City of Snoqualmie Landmark is a wooden electric interurban car. Built by St. Louis Car in 1907, it entered service between Seattle and Tacoma in February 1908.

The City of Snoqualmie Landmark Commission met on Thursday, January 25, 2018 to consider the nomination of car 523 to the Register.  Car 523 was donated to the The Northwest Railway Museum in September 2017 and a $11,000 grant from 4Culture funded its move from Petaluma, California to Snoqualmie, Washington.  The Museum prepared and submitted a nomination in fall 2017; this was the Commission's first meeting since.  A Commission staff report was made, the Museum gave a presentation, and then the public was invited to comment.

Historic Preservation architect Todd Scott is staff support for the King County Landmarks Commission (who sits as the Snoqualmie Commission when acting for Snoqualmie).  He presented the staff report and called out more than a dozen communities in South King County once served by the Puget Sound Electric Railway and car 523.  His report concluded with a recommendation to list car 523 on the Landmarks Register.

Museum Executive Director Richard R. Anderson gave a short presentation on the 523 and commented on the car's role in the settlement and development of the White River valley.  He went on to describe the extra-fare service offered using the parlor in the 523, and its popularity during the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in 1909.  (Check out this excellent University of Washington online exhibit too.)  He also mentioned the important role of the Georgetown Steam Plant in powering a portion of the electric railway's third rail and overhead.  And he introduced noted artist J. Craig Thorpe who has been commissioned to create an original artwork of car 523 departing the Auburn Depot.  Mr. Thorpe unveiled the pencil sketch that was created to develop the concept and help finalize the exacting research that is being performed to create an accurate representation of a scene from the fall of 1915.

The City of Snoqualmie's Community Development Director Mark Hofman presented a letter from Mayor Matt Larson who wrote, "This artifact is highly relevant to one of the most compelling chapters in Snoqualmie's History . . . (among) the first customers of the electricity generated from the Snoqualmie Falls Power Plant was the Puget Sound Electric Railway cars . . . I believe the Puget Sound Electric Railway Car 523 will prove to be the most valued and popular artifact in the Northwest Railway Museum's collection.  I support this effort without reservation."

Following the close of the public hearing, the Snoqualmie Landmarks Commission voted to approve the listing of car 523.  It is a fitting tribute to a rare and representative object that retains a high degree of original integrity, and the listing will support the car's preservation. Stay tuned for progress as the Museum prepares to undertake significant rehabilitation and restoration of this unique resource.

Special thanks to the Landmarks and Heritage Commission, Historic Preservation Officer Jennifer Meisner, Historic Preservation architect Todd Scott, Snoqualmie Mayor Matt Larson, and artist J. Craig Thorpe for helping bring this nomination all together and making it a reality.

Monday, January 22, 2018

Ride with Pleasure, Safety, Economy, and Reliability

Towards the end of the 19th Century, electric railway technology was introduced and it spread like lightning. Soon there was interest in establishing electric interurban railways in even far-flung places such as Tacoma and Seattle.  Specifically, enterprising individuals saw an opportunity to provide commuter service between Tacoma, Seattle and points in between, a distance of about 35 miles.  Support for such a service grew quickly and developed in part from feelings of antipathy towards the Northern Pacific Railway, a steam railroad with costly fares and unfavorable schedules.  Yet getting it built was still a significant undertaking filled with risk.

In October 1900 Fred E. Sander secured the first franchise to build an interurban line between Seattle and Tacoma.  Sander owned the narrow gauge Grant Street streetcar line that extended south to Georgetown, and envisioned the interurban as an extension of that line that would be simultaneously double tracked and rebuilt to a standard gauge of 56 ½ inches between the rails.  Construction began in February 1901 supported by more than $1 million in capital secured in eastern markets, but it was insufficient to complete the work.  Sander’s dream sold at foreclosure just six months later, on July 10, 1901.  It, along with the Grant Street streetcar, was eventually brought under the control of the Seattle Electric Company. 

Meanwhile, a second interurban company was formed in December 1900.  Headed by Northern Bank President Jacob Furth, it was also backed by Tacoma promoters Henry Bucey and John Collins.  There was some minor controversy as the interurban line’s precise route was decided, but during its early phase of construction the enterprise was purchased by Stoneand Webster, a Boston-based company that owned street cars, interurbans and electric utilities all across the country, and who the year prior created Seattle Electric Company with the merger of Seattle’s street railways.  A few months later, Stone and Webster also purchased the Snoqualmie Falls power station.

Shortly after service to Tacoma began, the Seattle Tacoma Interurban was renamed the Puget Sound Electric Railway.  Incorporated as a subsidiary of Puget Sound Power, Light and Traction, the entire operation was owned by Stone and Webster of Boston who had designs on an electric interurban network that would stretch from Portland, Oregon to Vancouver, British Columbia.

Completed in 1902, the PSER operated between Seattle and Tacoma on a 38-mile main line. Using the conventional overhead of municipal streetcar lines in the urban areas of Seattle and Tacoma, and third rail on its own track in the country, the PSER provided service between downtown Seattle and downtown Tacoma at speeds up to 60 miles per hour.

The PSER advertised a ride full of, “Pleasure, Safety, Economy and Reliability.”  The trains were electrically-powered so the trip was free of smoke and cinders, and was smooth and quiet.  The 75-minute "Limited" trip between Pioneer Square at the intersection of Occidental and Yesler in downtown Seattle and downtown Tacoma’s car barn at 7th and A streets featured just two stops.  However, all trains - including those that stopped at all 22 stations and took considerably longer than 75 minutes - featured the excitement of traveling at more than one mile per minute down the Kent Valley.

Initially, the PSER had 22 stops between Seattle and Tacoma.  Communities known today included Fife, Milton, and Kent, but also many no longer remembered included Orillia, Farrow and O’Brien.  The PSER enabled these communities to thrive by allowing residents to commute to work in Seattle or Tacoma.  Kent, for example, instantly became a commute to downtown Seattle comparable in duration to one from North Seattle.  Larger communities such as Auburn had a station building while smaller villages had just a platform.

Initially, trains operated with three cars.  Later, when cars such as the 523 were added, shorter trains of just two cars were able to handle as many passengers as the original three car trains, and also offer parlor car service.  By the teens, there were single car trains operating too.

As the PSER increased in popularity and ridership grew the company added branch lines.  For instance, a short branch between the mainline and Renton soon saw 33 trains per day.  Puyallup was connected to the mainline with a new 6-mile branch added in 1908.

Operation of the PSER was at the forefront of modern practice.  From the beginning, a dispatching office in Kent controlled trains using timetable and train order.  Instructions were issued by the dispatcher via telegraph and operators at each station wrote out the instruction on a form called a train order.  Train orders could be given to the motorman (train driver) in person or handed off with a train order hoop, which occurred while the train was moving.  The instructions on the train order were the authority to occupy the main track, and could allow the train to proceed, take a siding, or even hold the train for a period of time.  A typical station stop was just as long as it took for passengers to get on and off, not unlike a Sounder light rail train.

In August 1913 PSER announced it would spend more than $60,000 to purchase and install a new automatic block system.  This signal system was cutting-edge technology for the era and was designed to allow trains to safely and efficiently operate at high speed (60 miles per hour) with frequent departures.

Changes in ridership and revenue began appearing after WW I.  Construction of highway 99 combined with increasing rates of ownership of private automobiles resulted in a rapid decline in patronage.  By the late 1920s, revenues were no longer sufficient to pay the cost of capital, and this resulted in a default on bond payments.  Competition from highway buses and steam railroads proved insurmountable and parent company Puget Sound Power and Light refused to bail the railway out.  The last train operated on December 30, 1928; tracks were removed beginning in 1930.

Portions of the PSER right of way survive as the Interurban Trail, a 14-mile trail corridor developed and maintained by King County Parks, but they remain under ownership of successor company Puget Sound Energy.  Several substations have been adaptively reused and survive to this day.  And the sole remaining electric car - the 523 - has now been preserved at the Northwest Railway Museum in Snoqualmie.  So the legacy of the Puget Sound Electric Railway will live on in a museum exhibit and in local recreational trails.